YOU ARE HERE: HOME > OPINIONS DIGEST


OPINION DIGEST BEGINNING
WITH 1999 TERM OF COURT

Oct 2, 1998 – Current Term (Last Updated July 30, 2014)

I. FIRST PRINCIPLES

A. Jurisdiction

  1. Generally
  2. In Personam
  3. Subject Matter
  4. Of Trial Court
  5. Of Courts of Criminal Appeals
  6. Of U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

B. Constitutional Matters

  1. Generally
  2. Confessions
  3. Confrontation
  4. Cruel and Unusual Punishment
  5. Double Jeopardy
  6. Due Process
  7. Equal Protection
  8. First Amendment
  9. Right to Counsel
  10. Right to Present a Defense
  11. Right to Jury Trial
  12. Right to Speedy Trial
  13. Search and Seizure

II. MILITARY JUSTICE PERSONNEL

A. Defense Function

    1. Generally
    2. Right to Counsel
    3. Responsibilities
    4. Detailed Military Counsel
    5. Individual Military Counsel
    6. Civilian Counsel
    7. Appellate Counsel
    8. Experts, Investigators – Appointment to Defense Team
    9. Effective/Ineffective Assistance of Counsel

B. Prosecution Function

    1. Generally
    2. Trial Counsel
    3. Discretion
    4. Misconduct

C. Military Judge

    1. Generally
    2. Qualifications and Appointment of
    3. Duties and Responsibilities
    4. General Powers
    5. Discretion
    6. Instructions
    7. Conduct/Misconduct

D. Court Members

    1. Generally
    2. Challenges for Cause
    3. Eligibility/Selection
    4. Enlisted Members
    5. Impeachment of Verdict/Sentence
    6. Interrogation by Members
    7. Peremptory Challenges
    8. President of Courts-Martial
    9. Pretrial Publicity

E. Staff Judge Advocate

    1. Generally
    2. Pretrial Advice
    3. Post-Trial Recommendation
    4. Qualifications/Disqualifications
    5. Responsibilities

F. Convening Authority

    1. Generally
    2. Referral
    3. Immunity, Grants of
    4. Clemency
    5. Action
    6. Disqualification

III. CORE CRIMINAL LAW SUBJECTS

A. Crimes

    1. Article 77 – Principals
    2. Article 78 – Accessory After the Fact
    3. Article 79 – Conviction of Lesser Included Offenses
    4. Article 80 – Attempts
    5. Article 81 – Conspiracy
    6. Article 82 – Solicitation
    7. Article 83 – Fraudulent Enlistment, Appointment, or Separation
    8. Article 84 – Effecting Unlawful Enlistment, Appointment, or Separation
    9. Article 85 - Desertion
    10. Article 86 – Absence Without Leave
    11. Article 87 – Missing Movement
    12. Article 88 – Contempt Toward Officials
    13. Article 89 – Disrespect Toward a Superior Commissioned Officer
    14. Article 90 – Assaulting or Willfully Disobeying Superior Commissioned Officer
    15. Article 91 – Insubordinate Conduct Toward Warrant Officer,
      Noncommissioned Officer, or Petty Officer
    16. Article 92 – Failure to Obey Order or Regulation
    17. Article 93 – Cruelty and Maltreatment
    18. Article 94 – Mutiny and Sedition
    19. Article 95 – Resistance, Flight, Breach of Arrest, and Escape
    20. Article 96 – Releasing Prisoner without Proper Authority
    21. Article 97 – Unlawful Detention
    22. Article 98 – Noncompliance with Procedural Rules
    23. Article 99 – Misbehavior Before the Enemy
    24. Article 100 – Subordinate Compelling Surrender
    25. Article 101 – Improper Use of Countersign
    26. Article 102 – Forcing a Safeguard
    27. Article 103 – Captured or Abandoned Property
    28. Article 104 – Aiding the Enemy
    29. Article 105 – Misconduct as a Prisoner
    30. Article 106 – Spies
      30a. Article 106a - Espionage
    31. Article 107 – False Official Statements
    32. Article 108 – Military Property of the United States – Sale, Loss,
      Damage, Destruction, or Wrongful Disposition
    33. Article 109 – Property Other Than Military Property of the United
      States – Waste, Spoilage, or Destruction
    34. Article 110 – Improper Hazarding of Vessel
    35. Article 111 – Drunken or Reckless Operation of Vehicle, Aircraft,
      or Vessel
    36. Article 112 – Drunk on Duty
    37. Article 112a – Wrongful Use, Possession, etc., of Controlled Substances
    38. Article 113 – Misbehavior of Sentinel or Lookout
    39. Article 114 – Dueling
    40. Article 115 – Malingering
    41. Article 116 – Riot or Breach of Peace
    42. Article 117 – Provoking Speeches or Gestures
    43. Article 118 – Murder
    44. Article 119 – Manslaughter
    45. a. Article 119a – Death or Injury of an Unborn Child (para 44a, MCM)
    46. Article 120 – Rape and Carnal Knowledge (* Pre-2007 Amendment)

      45.0. Article 120 - Rape, Sexual Assault, and Other Sexual Misconduct (** Post-2007 Amendment)

      45.1. (a) Rape
      45.2. (b) Rape of a Child
      45.3. (c) Aggravated Sexual Assault
      45.4. (d) Aggravated Sexual Assault of a Child
      45.5. (e) Aggravated Sexual Contact
      45.6. (f) Aggravated Sexual Abuse of a Child
      45.7. (g) Aggravated Sexual contact with a Child
      45.8. (h) Abusive Sexual Contact
      45.9. (i) Abusive Sexual contact with a Child
      45.10. (j) Indecent Liberty with a Child
      45.11. (k) Indecent Act
      45.12. (l) Forcible Pandering
      45.13. (m) Wrongful Sexual Contact
      45.14. (n) Indecent Exposure

      45.00. Article 120 - Rape and Sexual Assault Generally (*** Post-2012 Amendment)

      45.01. (a) Rape
      45.02. (b) Sexual Assault
      45.03. (c) Aggravated Sexual Contact
      45.04. (d) Abusive Sexual Contact

      45a. Article 120a – Stalking

      45b. Article 120b - Rape and Sexual Assault of a Child (*** Post-2012 Amendment)

      45b.1. (a) Rape of a Child
      45b.2. (b) Sexual Assault of a Child
      45b.3. (c) Sexual Abuse of a Child

      45c. Article 120c - Other Sexual Misconduct (*** Post-2012 Amendment)

      45c.1. (a) Indecent Viewing, Visual Recording, or Broadcasting
      45c.2. (b) Forcible Pandering
      45c.3. (c) Indecent Exposure

    47. Article 121 – Larceny and Wrongful Appropriation
    48. Article 122 – Robbery
    49. Article 123 – Forgery
    50. Article 123a – Making, Drawing, or Uttering Check, Draft, or Order without Sufficient Funds
    51. Article 124 - Maiming
    52. Article 125 – Sodomy
    53. Article 126 – Arson
    54. Article 127 - Extortion
    55. Article 128 – Assault
    56. Article 129 - Burglary
    57. Article 130 – Housebreaking
    58. Article 131 – Perjury
    59. Article 132 – Frauds Against the United States
    60. Article 133 – Conduct Unbecoming an Officer and Gentleman
    61. Article 134 – General Article
    62. Article 134 – Abusing Public Animal
    63. Article 134 – Adultery
    64. Article 134 – Assault, Indecent (* Pre-2007 Amendment) (for ** Post-2007 Amendment, see "Article 120 - Rape, Sexual Assault, and Other Misconduct") (for *** Post-2012 Amendment, see Article 120 and Article 120b)
    65. Article 134 – Assault, with Intent to Commit Murder, Voluntary Manslaughter, Rape, Robbery, Sodomy, Arson, Burglary, or Housebreaking
    66. Article 134 - Bigamy
    67. Article 134 – Bribery and Graft
    68. Article 134 – Burning with Intent to Defraud
    69. Article 134 – Check, Worthless, Making and Uttering –- by Dishonorably Failing to Maintain Funds
    70. a. Article 134 - Child Endangerment (para 68a, MCM)
    71. b. Article 134 - Child Pornography (para 68b, MCM, *** Post-2012 Amendment)
    72. Article 134 – Cohabitation, Wrongful
    73. Article 134 – Correctional Custody – Offenses Against
    74. Article 134 – Debt, Dishonorably Failing to Pay
    75. Article 134 – Disloyal Statements
    76. Article 134 – Disorderly Conduct, Drunkenness
    77. Article 134 – Drinking Liquor with Prisoner
    78. Article 134 – Drunk Prisoner
    79. Article 134 – Drunkenness - Incapacitation for Performance of Duties Through Prior Wrongful Indulgence in Intoxicating Liquor or any Drug
    80. Article 134 – False or Unauthorized Pass Offenses
    81. Article 134 – False Pretenses, Obtaining Services Under
    82. Article 134 – False Swearing
    83. Article 134 – Firearm, Discharging – Through Negligence
    84. Article 134 – Firearm, Discharging – Willfully under such Circumstances as to Endanger Human Life
    85. Article 134 – Fleeing Scene of Accident
    86. Article 134 – Fraternization
    87. Article 134 – Gambling with Subordinate
    88. Article 134 – Homicide, Negligent
    89. Article 134 – Impersonating a Commissioned, Warrant, Noncommissioned, or Petty Officer, or an Agent or Official
    90. Article 134 – Indecent Acts or Liberties with a Child(*Pre-2007 Amendment) (for ** Post-2007 Amendment, see "Article 120 - Rape, Sexual Assault, and Other Misconduct") (for *** Post-2012 Amendment, see Article 120b)
    91. Article 134 – Indecent Exposure (* Pre-2007 Amendment) (for ** Post-2007 Amendment, see "Article 120 - - Rape, Sexual Assault, and Other Misconduct") (for *** Post-2012 Amendment, see Article 120c)
    92. Article 134 – Indecent Language
    93. Article 134 – Indecent Acts with Another (* Pre-2007 Amendment) (for ** Post-2007 Amendment, see "Article 120 - Rape, Sexual Assault, and Other Misconduct") (for *** Post-2012 Amendment, see Articles 120, 120b, and 120c)
    94. Article 134 – Jumping from Vessel into the Water
    95. Article 134 – Kidnapping
    96. Article 134 – Mail – Taking, Opening, Secreting, Destroying, or Stealing
    97. Article 134 – Mails – Depositing or Causing to be Deposited Obscene Matters in
    98. Article 134 – Misprision of Serious Offense
    99. Article 134 – Obstructing Justice
    100. a. Article 134 – Wrongful Interference with an Adverse Administrative Proceeding (para 96a, MCM)
    101. Article 134 – Pandering and Prostitution
    102. a. Article 134 – Parole, Violation of (para 97a, MCM)
    103. Article 134 – Perjury – Subornation of
    104. Article 134 – Public Record, Altering, Concealing, Removing, Mutilating, Obliterating, or Destroying
    105. Article 134 – Quarantine: Medical, Breaking
    106. a. Article 134 – Reckless Endangerment (para 100a, MCM)
    107. Article 134 – Requesting Commission of an Offense
    108. Article 134 – Restriction, Breaking
    109. Article 134 – Seizure: Destruction, Removal, or Disposal of Property to Prevent

    110. a. Article 134 – Self-injury without Intent to Avoid Service ( para 103a, MCM)
    111. Article 134 – Sentinel or Lookout – Offenses Against or By
    112. Article 134 – Soliciting Another to Commit an Offense
    113. Article 134 – Stolen Property: Knowingly Receiving, Buying, Concealing
    114. Article 134 – Straggling
    115. Article 134 – Testify: Wrongful Refusal
    116. Article 134 – Threat or Hoax Designed or Intended to Cause Panic or Public Fear
    117. Article 134 – Threat, Communicating
    118. Article 134 – Unlawful Entry
    119. Article 134 – Weapon – Concealed, Carrying
    120. Article 134 – Wearing Unauthorized Insignia, Decoration, Badge, Ribbon, Device, or Lapel Button
    121. Article 134 – Miscellaneous – Clause 1, Clause 2, or Clause 3

* Offenses committed before 1 Oct 2007.
** Offenses committed between 1 Oct 2007 through 27 Jun 2012.
*** Offenses committed on or after 28 Jun 2012.

B. Defenses

    1. Generally
    2. Affirmative Defenses
    3. Accident
    4. Defense of Property
    5. Duress
    6. Entrapment
    7. Former Jeopardy
    8. Gambler’s Defense
    9. Impossibility
    10. Innocent Ingestion
    11. Innocent/Inadvertent Possession
    12. Justification
    13. Lack of Mental Responsibility
    14. Mistake of Fact
    15. Necessity
    16. Obedience to Orders
    17. Self-Defense

C. Evidence

  1. Generally
  2. Accomplice Testimony
  3. Authentication
  4. Balancing
  5. Character
  6. Confessions and Admissions
    a. Generally
    b. Admission by silence
    c. Article 31
    d. Corroboration
    e. Invocation of rights
    f. Motions to suppress
    g. Rule of completeness
    h. Self-incrimination
    i. Subsequent confessions
    j. Voluntariness
    k. Warnings
  7. Credibility
  8. Expert/Scientific Testimony
  9. Hearsay
    a. Generally
    b. Adoptive Admissions
    c. Business entries
    d. Excited utterances
    e. Medical exception
    f. Public records and reports
    g. Residual hearsay
    h. State of mind
    i. Statement against interest
  10. Immunized Testimony
  11. Impeachment
  12. Inferences
  13. Instructions on
  14. Intent
  15. Judicial Notice
  16. Motive
  17. Opinion Testimony
  18. Other Acts
  19. Plan or Design
  20. Plea Negotiations
  21. Polygraph
  22. Prejudice
  23. Prior Consistent Statements
  24. Prior Convictions
  25. Prior Inconsistent Statement
  26. Privileges
    a. Generally
    b. Attorney-client
    c. Classified information
    d. Communications to clergy
    e. Husband-wife privilege
    f. Mental examination
    g. Psychotherapist-patient privilege
  27. Proffers
  28. Public Records
  29. Rebuttal
  30. Relevance
  31. Rule of Completeness
  32. Scientific Evidence
  33. Search and Seizure
    a. Generally
    b. Apprehension/arrest
    c. Automobile exception
    d. Bodily views and intrusions
    e. Commanders
    f. Consent

    g. Derivative evidence
    h. Exclusionary rule
    i. Expectations of privacy
    j. Good faith exception
    k. Inevitable discovery
    l. Investigatory stop
    m. Neutral and detached
    n. Plain view
    o. Probable cause
    p. Stop and frisk
    q. Warrants
    r. Wiretaps
  34. Sexual Assault and Child Molestation
  35. Stipulations
  36. Summaries
  37. Suppression
  38. Transcripts of Audio Recordings
  39. Uncharged Misconduct
  40. Waiver

D. Witnesses

      1. Generally
      2. Ake Appointments
      3. Child Witness
      4. Confrontation
      5. Experts
      6. Impeachment of
      7. Oaths
      8. Production of
      9. Scope of Permissible Testimony
      10. Sequestration

    E. Burdens, Standards, Presumptions, Inferences

      1. Trial Burdens, Standards
        a. Generally

        b. Affirmative defenses
        c. Appointment of experts
        d. Clergy privilege
        e. Confessions and admissions
        f. Consent to search
        g. Immunity
        h. Lack of mental responsibility
        i. Lawfulness of orders/regulations
        j. Marital privilege
        k. Pretrial punishment
        l. Proof, persuasion
        m. Selection of members
      2. Trial Presumptions, Inference
      3. Appellate Burdens, Standards, etc
        a. Generally
        b. Admission/suppression of evidence
        c. Capital case
        d. Command influence
        e. Continuance
        f. Instructions
        g. Presumptions
        h. Proof, persuasion
        i. Selection of court members
      4. Appellate Presumptions, Inferences

    F. Motions, Generally

    1. Pretrial
      a.
      Generally
      b. Severance
    2. Merits
    3. Burden
    4. Standing
    5. Motions to Dismiss

IV. TRIAL STAGES

A. Pretrial

    1. Charges and Specifications
    2. Competence of the Accused
    3. Discovery
    4. Investigations (Article 32)
    5. Pretrial Advice
    6. Pretrial Restraint
    7. Pretrial Confinement
    8. Pretrial Restriction
    9. Pretrial Punishment
    10. Motions
    11. Referral
B. Merits
  1. Pleas, generally
  2. Guilty Pleas
  3. Pretrial Agreements
  4. Confessional Stipulations
  5. Motions
  6. Trial Procedures
    a. Generally
    b. Arraignment
    c. Forum election
    d. Oaths
    e. Rebuttal
    f. Voir dire
    g. Withdrawal of charges
  7. Multiplicity for Findings
  8. Argument
  9. Instructions
    a. Generally
    b. Lesser-included offenses
    c. Affirmative defenses
    d. Accomplice testimony
    e. Divers occasions
  10. Findings
  11. Mistrial
  12. New Trial

C. Sentence and Punishment

    1. Evidence
    2. Unsworn Statements
    3. Argument
    4. Capital Punishment
    5. Credits
    6. Multiplicity for Sentencing
    7. Instructions
    8. Lawfulness of Sentence
    9. Cruel and Unusual Punishment
    10. Forfeitures
      a. Generally
      b. Adjudged
      c. Mandatory
    11. Fine/Contingent Confinement
    12. Mandatory

D. Post-Trial Hearings

    1. Authority for
    2. Findings and Rulings
    3. DuBay/Factfinding Hearings

E. Initial Review

    1. Generally
    2. Preparation of Record of Trial
    3. Authentication of Record of Trial
    4. Post-Trial Recommendation
    5. Post-Trial Submissions
    6. Action
    7. Clemency
    8. Deferral
    9. Revocation of Suspensions
    10. Execution of Sentences

F. Writs and Interlocutory Appeals

    1. Generally
    2. Collateral Attack
    3. Appropriateness of Forum
    4. All Writs Act
    5. Article 62 Appeal

G. Appeals

    1. Generally
    2. Courts of Criminal Appeals
      a. Generally
      b. Factual sufficiency
      c. Sentence appropriateness
    3. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces
    4. Cumulative Error
    5. Invited Error/Open Door
    6. Harmless/Prejudicial Error
    7. Preservation of Error/Plain Error
    8. Grostefon
    9. Law of the Case
    10. Remedies
      a. Generally
      b. DuBay/Factfinding
      c. Evidentiary hearing
      d. Rehearing
      e. Remand
      f. Sentence reassessment
    11. Reconsideration
    12. Scope of Review
    13. Standards of Review, Burdens, etc.
    14. Waiver

H. Petition for New Trial

    1. Generally
    2. Newly Discovered Evidence
    3. Appellate Review

V. MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS:

A. Command Influence

    1. Generally
    2. Members
    3. Chain of Command
    4. Burdens

B. Speedy Trial

    1. Generally
    2. Rule for Courts-Martial 707
    3. Article 10
    4. Sixth Amendment Right to Speedy Trial
    5. Post-Trial

C. Manual for Courts-Martial

  1. Generally
  2. Force and Effect

D. Multiplicity and Lesser Included Offenses

  1. Generally
  2. Lesser Included Offenses
  3. Multiplicity
  4. Unreasonable Multiplication of Charges
  5. Tests

E. Nonjudicial Punishment (Article 15)

  1. Generally
  2. Charges Based on Prior Nonjudicial Punishment

F. Statutes, Treaties, Regs, Executive Orders, Directives, etc.

    1. Generally
    2. United States Code
    3. State Law/Statutes
    4. Regulations
    5. Executive Orders

G. Judicial Review

    1. Generally
    2. Standing
    3. Political Questions
    4. Administrative Issues
    5. Stare Decisis
    6. Advisory Opinion

H. Professional Responsibility/Ethics

    1. Generally
    2. Conflicts of Interest

I. Pretrial Publicity

    1. Generally
    2. Burdens


DISCLAIMER

The digest of opinions constitutes no part of the opinions of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces and it does not represent the official position of the Court. The digest has been prepared by a member of the Court’s staff for the convenience of the public. The digest summarizes key issues from the various opinions of the Court.

United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces • 450 E Street, NW Washington, DC 20442-0001
(202) 761-1448 / DSN 763-1448 • (202) 761-4672 fax